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Why did people start using money? At first people bartered, which means they exchanged things they had for things they needed. A farmer who had cattle wanted to have salt, so cattle became a form of money. Throughout their history people have used different things as money: knives and rice in China, cattle in Babylonia, tobacco in America, whales’ teeth and shells on the Pacific islands.

The first government to make coins that looked alike and use them as money was probably the city of Lydia in Ancient Greece. The coins were made from a mixture of gold and silver. But they were heavy and difficult to carry, and the cities and the roads of Europe were danger¬ous places to carry huge purses with gold. In the early 1700s, France’s government became the first in Europe to make paper money - banknotes or bills as they say in the US. But paper money, as well as first coins ever, was invented in China, where traveller Marco Polo saw it in the 1280s. Now people carry plastic credit cards in their wal¬lets instead of cash, which makes travelling even safer and more convenient. With your credit card you can take money from the cash-machine any time you need it.

When you go to a foreign country, one of the first things you may see is what money looks like. Banknotes of different countries show queens or presidents or other famous people. But you also may find a tiger or elephant (India), cows and fruit (Nigeria), a map (Norway), or even schoolchildren (Taiwan).

Many countries in Europe now have the same currency; all their coins and paper money are euros. Great Britain, however, is still using pounds. People in France and Italy miss their currencies - francs and lire. But they agree that now money travels easily from one country to another. This makes it easier to make financial deals between countries. And tourists can use the same kind of money to pay for a slice of pizza whether it’s in Italy or in France. People travelling to other coun¬tries usually need to convert (change) their money into the local currency. For that an exchange rate (курс обмена валют) is used.

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  • Some people have got to have it. Some people really need it. Some people love it, and some people hate it.
  • It is lost and gained and wasted and earned every single day.


  • Money can't buy hapiness. - За деньги счастье не купишь
  • Money makes the world go round. - Деньги правят миром.
  • Money doesn’t grow on trees.  "Деньги не растут на деревьях" или "деньги на дороге не валяются".
  • to bring home the bacon. Иметь хорошую зарплату и обеспечивать семью.
  • Tighten your belt. Затянуть ремень потуже, жить экономно.
  • live from hand to mouth - еле сводить концы с концами
  • from rags to riches - из грязи в князи, быстрый взлет от бедности к богатству
  • Take care of the pennies and pounds will take care of themselves. - Копейка рубль бережет.
  • Neither a borrower nor a lender be. - В долг не бери и взаймы не давай.
  • Money is the root of all evil. - Деньги - корень зла.



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